Spojky v angličtine – Conjuctions

Spojky používáme na spojení dvou vět. Namísto dvou krátkých vět nám vznikne jedna delší věta. Vyprávění nebo čtení je tím plynulejší bez sekání.

Souřadící spojky (Coordinating Conjuctions)

Spojují slova, skupiny slov nebo věty, které jsou na sobě navzájem nezávislé, stojí mezi slovy nebo větami, které spojují a některé tyto spojky stojí na začátku věty.

Slučovací spojky

  • and – a  John and Mary are here. Come and have a drink.
  • as well asi, také, jakož i  I as well as you know that.
  • both … and – i … i, jak-tak It is both good and cheap.

Odporovací spojky

  • but – ale  He is ill but he doesn’t complain.
  • although, though – ackoliv, prestože   I drank the beer although I didn’t want it.
  • yet – avšak, ale, no, stejně  These books are cheap yet good.
  • still – avšak, přece, no přece  Still, you ought to help them.
  • however – ale, přece, avšak  Later, however, she made up her mind to go.
  • nevertheless – stejně, a přece, i tak  It was dark. Nevertheless, she found the way.

Vylučovací spojky

  • or – nebo  Are you sad or happy? You can go right or left.
  • either … or – bud … anebo  Either tell the truth or say nothing.
  • neither … nor – ani … ani  It is neither green nor blue.

Příčinné spojky

  • nor – ani  He won’t help her. Nor will I.
  • for – protože  You have to take at least three books a year, for that is how the club works.

Důsledkové spojky

  • so, thus – tak, nuže, proto  I have just ordered three books, so I’ll be easy.
  • therefore – proto, a tak, tedy  There has been heavy rain. The ground is therefore very damp.

Podřadící spojky – Subordinating conjunctions

Spojují vedlejší a hlavní větu. Stojí na začátku vedlejší věty.

OBSAHOVÉ spojky

  • thatže  I know that he is very clever.
  • whetherjestli, zda, zdali  Ask him whether it is time to go.

ČASOVÉ spojky

  • whenkdyž, až  When I come back, I will go to church.
  • till, untildokud  Let’s wait till the rain stops.
  • after(potom) když; poté, co …  It always rains after I’ve cleaned the windows.
  • beforenež; dříve, než …  Have some tea before you go.
  • sinceod té doby, co …  I haven’t seen her since she left.
  • as soon asjen co, jakmile  I’ll come as soon as I finish working.
  • no sooner … than – sotvaže  Eve had no sooner sat down than the bell rang.
  • whilezatímco, dokud   Please be quiet while I am talking to you.
  • askdyž  I saw him as he was getting off the bus.
  • as long aspokud, dokud  You can stay as long as you like.

MÍSTNÍ spojky

  • where  – kde, kam  There are many lakes where I live.
  • wherever kdekoli, kamkoli   Wherever you go, you’ll find him.

PŘÍPUSTKOVÉ spojky

  • although, thoughačkoli, i když, třebas i  Though he is small, he is very strong.
  • in spite of the fact thatpřestože, ačkoliv  In spite of the fact that he is young, he is very rich.

PŘÍČINNÉ spojky

  • asprotože, jelikož  As you are tired, you’d better take a rest.
  • becauseprotože, poněvadž  I drink because I am thirsty.
  • sinceprotože, jelikož  Since we have a lot of work, it’s better to start early.

PODMÍNKOVÉ spojky

  • if  – jestliže, kdyby, zdali, -li  If she comes, I will tell you.
  • unlesskdyž ne, kdyby ne  I will leave at four unless they phone me.
  • provided thatpod podmínkou, že …   They will lend it to me provided that I return it on time.
  • supposing thatza předpokladu, že …  Supposing white were black you would be right.

ÚČELOVÉ  spojky

  • that, in order to  – aby  We’ll mail all the information in order to save some time.
  • so thataby  I wrote it to him so that he could know it.

ZPŮSOBOVÉ spojky

  • asjak, tak jako  She doesn’t speak as other teachers do.
  • as if (as though)jako by, jako kdyby  She behaved as if nothing had happened.
  • so … thattak, že  It was so heavy that he could not move it.
  • such … that  – takový, že  It was such a boring speech that I fell asleep.

SROVNÁVACÍ spojky

  • as … astak … jako  He likes me as much as I like him.
  • not as (not so) … asne tak … jako  It was not so far as we expected.
  • thannež, jako  John speaks French more fluently than Peter does.

Souvztažné spojovací výrazy – Correlative conjunctions

Některé spojky vznikají spojením několika slov (přídavná jména, zájmena). Tyto spojky existují, jen pokud jsou daná slova dohromady. Zvlášť tvoří obvykle jiný slovní druh.

K nejběžnějším patří:

  • both…and jak…tak

Both my grandfather and my father play the piano.

  • either . . . or buď…nebo

Bring either a tomato salad or a potato one.

  • neither . . . nor ani…ani

Neither he nor she can leave.

  • whether . . . or jestli…nebo

She is trying to decide whether to go to a pub or to stay at home.

  • not only…but also nejen…ale i

Not only in the movie but also in the book, the plot was unsolved.

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